Authorities and communities in Ukraine lack the capacity to jointly plan, budget and implement local development strategies. Such limited capacities create a scenario where local development priorities attract insufficient focus and resources; poverty level remains high, local living conditions continue to deteriorate and negative social trends often remain unaddressed.
First phase of CBA succeeded in scaling up the community led approach to local development countrywide. It contributed to strengthening participatory governance, supported and developed local capacities for community-based development, and facilitated a collaborative relationship between communities and local authorities. While some progress has been achieved to improve transparency, accountability and quality of public services, there remained room for further improvement and dissemination of the approach. The second phase of CBA Project was conceived to upscale the approach further and disseminate the knowledge and best practices on community based development.
CBA Project aims at increasing self-consciousness and creating self-sustainability of communities by promoting dialogue among its members, facilitating social activity, shaping a collectively shared vision of the future and implementing joint initiatives on community development.
The overall objective of CBA-II Project is to promote sustainable socio-economic development at local level by strengthening participatory governance and encouraging community-based initiatives throughout Ukraine.
Specific objectives of the Project are to:
· promote community based approach to local governance and sustainable development;
In the second phase, CBA Project works in all 25 regions of Ukraine, 264 rayons and 1108 local councils – all selected though the open competition, based on the criteria of (a) socio-economic hardship; (b) motivation to practice participatory governance.
Strategic direction of CBA is to build capacity of its target stakeholders and use this capacity for multi-stakeholders cooperation and multi-sectoral interventions with ensured local ownership of the process. The process is bottom-up. The bottom-up mechanism is established involving stakeholders from grassroots (community), meso (rayon and regional) and macro level (national) in the process as it moves upward. CBA implementation process involves a series of activities and action points that ultimately yields results intended by the Project.
A multi-level partnership is built involving selected rayons, village/city councils and local communities form the functional area of the Project. Their selection is done through open competition based on the criteria of socio-economic hardship, especially in the area of health, education, water supply, energy supply and environmental situation. Through the selection process, CBA reaches the most suffering areas/population of the region/rayon.
Local level activities of CBA are carried out under the framework of partnership with the stakeholders. It is based on willingness and commitment of the partners (communities, village/city councils, rayon authorities, regional authorities, academia, associations of local self-governments, private sector) for cost sharing and joint decision-makin.
The project uses social mobilization tool to mobilise stakeholders and create environment (support structures) for joint decision-making and joint implementation. Community organisation (CO) is formed by representation of 80% or more households on the selected community to reflect common community vision and implementation of community priorities; local development forum (LDF) is developed at rayon level for joint decision-making, resource mobilisation, local coordination, regional coordination council (RCC) is developed at regional (oblast/ARC) level to monitor CBA activities in the region, to resolve issues related with local policies/procedures, to support programming and resource mobilisation. At national level there is a steering committee to ensure national level coordination and advisory support.
Capacity of the COs is built in such a way that they are able to make joint decision with local authorities, mobilize resources, implement local priorities and sustain the result. Capacity of the partners (VC/CC, rayon/oblast etc.) is strengthened in terms of human resources to implement participatory approach propagated by the Project. Training, exposure visits, dialogues and small grants (for community projects), appropriate institutional mechanisms etc. are used as tools for building capacity.
CBA-II supports pilot rural communities in solving the most pressing local development problems by implementing community initiatives (micro-projects) within major project priority:
■ Health (refurbishing of local health posts);
■ Environment (rehabilitation/creation of waste disposal, sewage & drainage system etc.);
■ Energy (energy saving, energy efficiency, alternative energy sources);
■ Water supply;
■ Local economic development (cooperative development, small business promotion)
Knowledge and experience acquired in course of implementation will be gathered, analysed and disseminated through a Knowledge Hub in cooperation with academia and association of local self-government bodies.
Brief results of CBA-II as of December 2013 are presented hereunder.
Establishing Partnership (Target: 25 regions, 200 rayons, 900 village/city councils)
Partnership has been established with all 24 oblast authorities and the Crimean Government; 264 rayon authorities and 1108 village/city councils of Ukraine. CBA-II succeeded in bringing administrations and councils together in most of the cases through tripartite partnership. Partners were selected through well-defined procedures involving competition.
Community Mobilization (Target: 900 community organizations)
Through competition, 1109 communities were selected jointly with local and regional partners for local action. The project carried out community mobilization in the selected communities. As a result, 1108 community organizations (COs) were formed in participation of 541,133 men and women from 362,416 households (out of 467,961 target households). Among the members 57.4% were female.
Support structure Development (Target: 200 LDFs, 223 resource centres and 25 RCCs)
To facilitate the process of bottom-up planning process and participatory decision-making at rayon and regional level, 264 Local Development Forums (LDFs) and 25 Regional Coordination Councils (RCCs) were formed or continued from CBA-I. To support citizens-authorities cooperation, 262 rayon level community resource centres and 23 regional community resource centres were respectively created/grafted and strengthened.
Capacity Building (Target: 6,000 community members and 2000 state/elected officials trained)
Human resource development is a key element of CBA Project. In a bid to enhance skill of human resources involved in CBA-II implementation, 2263 training/exposure visits/roundtables were held and 13,728 CO-executives and 4,527 state/elected officials were trained. The training includes such aspects as implementing CBA methodology, CO-management, financial management, participatory planning, micro-project implementation, public audit, sustainability etc.
Micro-project Support (Target: 600 community projects)
708 micro-projects were approved by CBA Project for funding as of 2013. 72.9% of them were related with energy saving/efficiency, 13.7% public health, 12.7% water supply and environment 0.7%. Total cost of the projects was UAH 125.3 million shared by community (7.7%), local authorities (48.7%), CBA (42.0%) and private sponsors (1.6%).
From these micro-projects, 948,764 persons are expected to receive direct/indirect benefit including 138 hospitals and 472 schools/kindergartens.
Methodology Replication (Target: 60 rayons. Information in this section is exclusive to previous sections)
Replication of CBA methodology was introduced in 21 regions based on willingness and commitment of regional authorities. Partnership was established with 64 rayons and 251 village councils. 251 communities were selected for local action. Community mobilisation was carried out in the selected communities. As a result, 253 COs were formed/grafted with participation of 121,568 men and women from 80,660 households.
64 rayons authorities formed/continued LDF to ensure joint decision making and bottom-up planning process. 62 rayons established rayon community resource centers to facilitate community based approach to local development. 484 trainings were conducted for 1920 executives of COs and 553 representatives of local authorities in procedures of implementing methodology replication. In methodology replication, local partners are expected to take active/leadership role in implementation and share major part of micro-project cost.
253 COs developed community development plan, of which 251 were mainstreamed in local government plan. A total of 220 micro-projects were supported. Of them 78.6% was related with energy saving, 12.3% with health, 8.2% water supply and 0.9% with environment. Total cost (UAH 24.5 million) was shared by community (10.2%), local authorities (70.8%), CBA (17.6%) and remaining came from private sponsors. Through replication 232,026 persons will benefit including 41 hospitals and 134 schools/kindergartens.
Rural Economic Development (Target: 17 cooperatives)
CBA-II aims to raise income and employment opportunities of the rural poor through development of cooperatives and improvement in local skills and economic environment. To this end, 15 communities were selected for cooperative development from 15 rayons belonging to 7 regions (Mykolaiv, Cherkasy, Kirovohrad, Sumy, Ternopil, Donetsk, Chernivetsi regions). The selection was based on feasibility and competition. Selected 15 communities developed cooperatives in participation of 928 low income households. 1317 cooperative members and 174 officials of local authorities were trained in cooperative management, business planning and implementation of economic initiatives. In total 15 micro-projects were supported as of 2013. These projects were mostly for procurement of equipment that would enhance production of vegetables, fruits and processing/supply of dairy and meat products. Of the total cost UAH 4.2 million, cooperatives shared 18.1%, local authorities shared 10%, CBA share was 69.3% and private sponsors contributed 2.6%. All 928 households are expected to benefit from the economic initiatives.
Energy Efficiency Component (Target: 6 advanced piloting regions, 19 standard piloting regions; 300 micro-projects, 6 regional energy strategies)
EE component of CBA-II aims to enhance local capacity by enabling citizens and local authorities to learn about energy efficiency technologies and use them jointly to solve their energy problems sustainably. Six oblasts (namely, Kharkivska, Dnipropetrovska, Zaporizhka, Lvivska, Ivano-frankivska and Zakarpatska) were selected as advanced piloting and remaining 19 regions were selected for normal piloting. Normal pilot regions received micro-project support while advance pilot regions received support for regional energy strategy and technical documentation besides micro-projects.
329 training/backstopping events were organized to enable CBA partners undertake energy efficiency activities. A total of 3604 CO-executives and 1325 elected/state officials received training on energy efficiency component.
275 in total since inception; Total cost of these micro-projects is UAH 62.3 million shared among community (8.3%), local budget (43.3%), CBA (46.5%) and private sponsors (1.9%). An estimated 313`936 men, women and children will receive direct/indirect benefit from this support besides 124 schools and 27 hospitals.
Energy strategy of 6 oblasts was updated. Recommendations of these updated strategy include sustainability and efficiency in energy sector; investment in innovative technologies and green energy to raise its energy efficiency; focusing community-based micro-size energy projects in rural areas.
In line with the recommendation made in the updated energy strategy document, the regional authorities of 6 advance pilot oblasts were engaged in making investment under the framework of cost sharing from CBA Project. It included developing technical documentation that would lead to larger investment for enhancing energy efficiency in the region and investing into concrete object that would promote energy efficiency in rural areas such as mobile laboratory for energy auditing. Total cost of 6 projects was UAH 5 million. Beneficiary regional authorities shared 64 % of this cost followed by 36% from CBA grant.
132 events were held in various regions to sensitize citizens, local authorities, students and academia about energy efficiency, renewable energy and innovative technologies. Various awareness materials (e.g. leaflet, video film, booklet, posters etc.) were produced and distributed among stakeholders during awareness raising events and on other occasions.
Knowledge Management (Target: curriculum in 10 universities, 1 knowledge hub functioning)
Knowledge management hub – A knowledge management hub was established under umbrella of the Ukrainian Association of District and Regional Councils (UADRC). Necessary logistics and equipment were set up and human resources were put in place with due training. Web portal for the hub was developed, tested and brought to full function. The portal can be viewed at http://rozvytok.in.ua
The knowledge hub has proved to be an effective tool in collecting opinions on policy issues, conducting policy dialogues/roundtables and contributing to policy recommendation in the area of local self-governance, territorial reform and decentralisation. It has become a rich source of information in these areas. It enjoys a sound network of professionals policy makers and resource centres extended to region and districts in Ukraine.
Curriculum development – As of 2013, 27 universities from 20 regions of Ukraine have established partnership with CBA. Four of them are teaching the course on sustainable development on mandatory basis, while 9 of them teach the subject on optional basis. About 550 students have benefited from the teaching so far. Remaining universities have committed to launch the course in near future. CBA Project supported various research, training, conference, publications and curriculum/teaching material development appropriate for teachers as well as for students.
Knowledge sharing – CBA Project disseminated its experience to interested agencies and individuals from abroad. It was done through hosting visits, trainings or by making presentation in conferences/workshops/roundtables. The beneficiaries were journalists from more than 17 European countries, officials from Armenia and so on.
Media outreach – A substantial amount of information dissemination on CBA took place through various communication outlets. It includes 545 media events were held; 4,658 cases of media coverage were registered; 284 issues of regional newsletters were published and disseminated and 2,156 publications appeared on partners’ websites.
CBA-II Project is funded by the European Union and is co-financed and implemented by UNDP, with the support of the Government of Ukraine and in partnership with local executive and elected bodies. Total budget of CBA-II is €17 million with 98.4% contribution from EU and 1.6% cost sharing from UNDP. Project time frame is 4 years (June 2011 – June 2015).
Budget Utilisation: € 13.7 million was utilised by December 2013. It reflects 80% of the total budget of CBA-II.
Total delivery: EUR 13,534,746
1175 Ukrainian communities from 200 pilot rayons benefited from CBA-I activities in 2007-2011. The project helped to rebuild health centres, to supply street lighting, to provide school buses, to replace windows in schools and hospitals and to ensure the supply of clean water. This has all been done by the organised local community groups under support of local authorities and co-funding from CBA, local budget, private sector and community contributions.
Over 1.2 million people have benefitted from implementation least 1303 sustainable community initiatives worth USD 25 million. and have improved primary healthcare points, water supply management, environmental protection, energy efficiency and local transport services while empowering local communities. Over 1700 trainings were held to improve organizational abilities of community leaders and local authorities.
The CBA approach methodology contributed to qualitative enhancement of local government, increase in trust towards authorities and establishment of effective cooperation between communities and authorities. United by a common goal of their community development, local residents become an active partner of local authorities and bodies of local self-government and contribute to sustainable local development. Community self-organisation has led to improvement of quality of life of citizens. Community members working on community project realization experience growth of self-reliance.
More results of CBA-I are available at the web site: http://www.cba.org.ua/one/.
At the national level, the project works with line ministries, parliamentary committees, national associations of local councils and other counterparts under overall coordination of the Secretariat of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
At the regional level Project cooperates with 24 oblast state administrations and oblast councils (in case of AR Crimea – with ARC Council of Ministers and Verkhovna Rada of AR Crimea).
At the rayon level, CBA partners with 264 rayon state administrations and rayon councils.
At the local level, partnership is established with 1108 village / city councils.
In framework of cooperation with academic institutions and knowledge management, CBA partners with the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA); 27 universities from 20 regions (list available at http://cba.org.ua/en/partners) and the Ukrainian Association of District and Regional Councils (UADRC).
For more information about the Project’s activities please visit www.cba.org.ua
As of February 2014, Project’s delivery is $18.3 mln USD.
“Results and Impact of CBA” (based on results of sociological survey research)
Publications and video films on CBA-I regional experiences are available here.